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In contrast,fragments of mutant htt have been shown to also protectagainst some forms of injury excitotoxicity through adifferent mechanism, likely the induction of a stressresponse [19].

In HD, there is evidence that striatal neurons die throughexcitotoxic mechanisms [20,21]. As such, we have previ-ously examined the ability of htt to protect neurons in vivoagainst two different excitotoxic neurotoxins. For theseexperiments, we used YAC18 mice that over-express httfrom a yeast artificial chromosome containing the entirehuman HD gene with 18 CAG repeats [22].

After intra-peritoneal injection of kainic acid, YAC18 mice showeddramatically less neuronal loss in the hippocampus com-pared to WT controls [42].

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Similarly, YAC18 mice showedsignificant, htt dose-dependent protection against lesionscaused by intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid [23]. Based on the clear demonstration of in vivo protectionagainst excitotoxic cell death in YAC18 mice and the gen-eral protective effect of wild-type htt that has been demon-strated in vitro, we designed this experiment to determineif the over-expression of wild-type htt would be beneficialthe presence of at least one copy of the mutant HD gene ,it is plausible that this decrease in htt's neuroprotectivefunction will make neurons more susceptible to the toxic-ity of mutant htt.

A decrease in wild-type htt levels mayalso affect htt's role in transcription and transport withinthe cell [,24]. In fact many of htt's assayable func-tions have been shown to be disrupted by polyglutamineexpansion [12,16,17,23] and polyglutamine expansionalso alters htt's ability to interact with its interacting pro-teins [24].

Thus, treatment of HD with wild-type htt maybe beneficial by compensating for the loss of wild-type httfunction and or through htt's general neuroprotectiveeffect. For this experiment we used the YAC mouse model ofHD which recapitulates many aspects of the human dis-ease [3,25]. These mice exhibit progressive motor dysfunc-tion, cognitive impairment and selectiveneurodegeneration. We show that over-expression ofwild-type htt in YAC mice results in a mild improve-ment in striatal neuropathology but does not improvemotor dysfunction.

In order to max-imize the amount of neuroprotection imparted by over-expression of wild-type htt, we used the highest expressingYAC18 line line available. We have previouslyshown that YAC18 line mice express wild-type htt at2—3 times endogenous levels [22,23,26] and exhibit thegreatest degree of neuroprotection against quinolinic acidtoxicity of all the YAC18 lines [23].

To confirm the highexpression of htt in line mice, we examined totalwild-type huntingtin in line and WT mice by Westernblotting with polyclonal bkp1 antibody [27]. As previ-ously reported, we found that line mice express wild-type htt at levels that are more than two times the level ofwild-type htt expression in WT mice Fig. We also examined total htt expres-sion using MAB which detects both mouse andhuman htt Fig.

YAC18 mice express increased levels of wild-type httwhich are accounted for by increased human htt expres-sion. YAC mice express wild-type htt at the same levelas WT mice and human mutant htt.

Over-expression of wild-type huntingtin does not improve motor function in YAC miceTo examine the effect of wild-type htt on the motor dys-function present in the YAC mice, we monitoredmotor coordination on the rotarod from 2 to 12 monthsof age.

We have previously reported early hyperactivity and latehypoactivity in YAC mice compared to WT mice [3,5]. Overall, increasing wild-type htt expression did not pro-vide a significant behavioural benefit to YAC mice.

To confirm high levels of htt over-expression in YAC18, line mice we performed Western blots on whole brain lysates. We found that line mice have 2. Examination of total htt levels with MAB antibody reveals that all mice express similar levels endog-enous wild-type htt. Error bars indicate standard error of the mean. This suggests the possibility that high levelsof htt expression may be detrimental in the testis. Over-expression of wild-type huntingtin results in mild improvement in striatal neuropathology in YAC miceYAC mice demonstrate clear striatal neuropathologyat 12 months of age with decreased striatal volume, stri-atal neuronal loss, striatal neuronal atrophy anddecreased striatal DARPP expression [3,28].

In contrast, increasing wild-type htt expression inYAC mice resulted in a significant reduction in striatalneuronal atrophy Fig. DiscussionBased on recent work demonstrating a neuroprotectivefunction of wild-type htt and suggestions that loss of wild-type htt function contributes to HD pathogenesis, weinvestigated the therapeutic potential of wild-type htt inthe YAC mouse model of HD.

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We found that over-expression of wild-type htt in YAC mice resulted in amild improvement in striatal neuropathology with no sig-nificant improvement in behavioural phenotypes. The effect of over-expression of wild-type htt in YACmice is summarized in table 2. A robust finding of thisstudy was that over-expression of wild-type htt in YACmice restored striatal neuronal size. Similarly, we havefound that decreasing wild-type htt levels in YAC miceresults in decreased neuronal size [5].

Combined, theseresults suggest that wild-type htt levels influence neuronalsize and suggest that loss of wild-type htt may contributeto the striatal neuronal atrophy observed in HD.

An alter-nate possibility is that striatal neuronal size is moreresponsive to mildly beneficial effects of treatments as thismeasure has been shown to exhibit the most dramaticimprovements in therapeutic trials in mouse models ofHD [].

The effect of wild-type htt on neuronal sizemay be related to htt's ability to increase BDNF transcrip-tion [17] and transport [16] since BDNF promotes the sur-vival and differentiation of striatal neurons. Table 1: Effect of modulating wild-type huntingtin levels on survival in YAC mice. YAC mice express mutant htt and 2 copies of wild-type htt. Inparallel with these experiments we examined the effect ofeliminating wild-type htt expression in YAC mice andfound that there was a trend towards decreased striatalvolume, striatal neuronal counts and striatal DARPPexpression which did not reach significance [5] see Addi-tional file 1 for summary.

In this experiment, we did not observe any fur-ther improvement in either rotarod performance or sur-vival with the over-expression of wild-type htt suggestingthat there may be ceiling effect for the amount that wild-type htt can improve these outcome measures. While thisstudy did not have enough power to demonstrate a signif-icant improvement in survival, the fact that the percentageof mice surviving to 12 months was similar to YACmice suggests that the over-expression of wild-type hunt-Over-expression of wild-type htt results in mild improvements in striatal neuropathology in YAC miceFigur 2Over-expression of wild-type htt results in mild improvements in striatal neuropathology in YAC mice.

In contrast, over-expression of wild-type htt resulted in a significant improvement in striatal neuronal cross-sectional area panel D: YAC Error bars show standard error of the mean.

Unexpectedly,we found that increasing wild-type huntingtin expressionin YAC mice resulted in further decreases in testicularmass. Combined with a trend towards decreased testicularmass in YAC18 mice, this suggests the possibility thatexpression of htt beyond a certain threshold may result intesticular atrophy which is exacerbated by the presence ofmutant htt.

It is also possible that the human origin of theover-expressed htt contributes to the testicular phenotype. Unfortunately, we are not aware of a mouse model thatover-expresses wild-type mouse htt at high levels thatwould permit testing of this hypothesis.

These micehave two intact copies of the wild-type HD gene and wehave previously shown that they express wild-type htt atthe same level as WT mice [5].

To more directly assess thetherapeutic benefit of wild-type htt in HD, one couldover-express mouse wild-type htt in a knockin mousemodel of HD to assess the effect of wild-type htt on earlydisease phenotypes in these mice.

The results of this study are congruent with comparisonsof homozygous and heterozygous HD patients and HDmouse models which suggest that mutant htt has a greaterinfluence on the disease phenotype than wild-type htt.

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Examination of disease severity in patients homozygousand heterozygous for mutations in the HD gene havereported either no difference or that homozygous HDpatients are more severely affected []. Two inde-pendent studies have also examined the phenotype ofHD knock-in mice exhibited a more severe phenotypethan heterozygous HD knock-in mice, but the differenceswere mild [38,39]. These studies suggest that mutant httmaintains many of the critical functions of wild-type httas replacement of wild-type htt with mutant htt has onlya mild effect on phenotype.

However, it has been shownthat polyglutamine expansion disrupts htt's neuroprotec-tive function [12,23], at least part of htt's role in transcrip-tion [17] and transport [16], and also affects theinteraction of htt with its interaction partners [24].

Sinceincreasing mutant htt expression alone is known to resultin a more severe phenotype in mice [40], it suggests thatthe increase in phenotypic severity between heterozygousand homozygous patients and animal models is mainlycaused by the increase in mutant htt levels which is in linewith our findings that increasing levels of wild-type htthas only a small impact on the disease phenotype. These findings are surprising given the importance of httfunction and its demonstrated neuroprotective abilities.

Htt is essential for embryonic development and decreasesin htt expression alone lead to abnormal phenotypes [,10,11,41]. Further, htt has been shown to protect cellsfrom death both in vitro and in the testis and in the brain[,23]. While htt has been shown to specifically pro-tect against polyglutamine toxicity both in vitro [13] andin the testis [5,14], our findings here indicate a milderprotective effect against mutant htt toxicity in the brain.

Given that wild-type htt exhibits protection against excito-toxic neurotoxins [23], our finding that wild-type httmildly improves striatal neuropathology in YAC miceis not inconsistent with excitotoxicity contributing to thepathogenesis of HD.

ConclusionOverall, our results demonstrate that the over-expressionof wild-type htt in YAC mice results in a mildimprovement in striatal neuropathology. Based on theclear effect of htt over-expression on striatal neuronal size,Table 2: Effect of over-expression of wild-type huntingtin on HD-like phenotypes in the YAC mouse model of HD. In both cases, homozygousit appears that htt function may be important in maintain-ing neuronal health.

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