Supersedes: SP (September ) Richard Kissel (NIST), Andrew Regenscheid (NIST), Matthew Scholl (NIST), Kevin Stine (NIST) Local Download. NIST Special Publication Revision 1, Guide for Developing Security Plans for Information Technology .. download from the. SP Rev. Downloads (cumulative): 94 . NIST Reports: Computer Security Publications from the National Institute of Standards and Technology ( NIST).
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In December , the guidelines were revised, making the current version “ NIST Special Publication Rev. 1” (“NIST SP NIST Special Publication Summary | Revision 1 Issued in , NIST Special Publication has become the defacto .. downloaded from. NIST Special Publication was sponsored by the Homeland Security Department. Media Download the entire NIST SP PDF (9/ Rev 1).
Data erasure can also bypass the Operating System OS. Overwriting programs that operate through the OS will not always perform a complete erasure because they cannot modify the contents of the hard drive that are actively in use by that OS. Because of this, many data erasure programs like DBAN are provided in a bootable format, where you run off of a live CD that has all of the necessary software to erase the disk.
How Blancco Can Help
Hardware support[ edit ] Data erasure can be deployed over a network to target multiple PCs rather than having to erase each one sequentially.
It operates directly with sector sizes such as , , and , removing the need to first reformat back to sector size. WinPE has now overtaken Linux as the environment of choice since drivers can be added with little effort. Standards[ edit ] Many government and industry standards exist for software-based overwriting that removes the data.
A key factor in meeting these standards is the number of times the data is overwritten. Also, some standards require a method to verify that all the data have been removed from the entire hard drive and to view the overwrite pattern. This provision was removed in a change to the manual and was never permitted for Top Secret media, but it is still listed as a technique by many providers of the data erasure software.
As a result, existing degaussers may not have sufficient force to effectively degauss such media. Dedicated sanitize commands support addressing these areas more effectively.
The use of such commands results in a tradeoff because although they should more thoroughly address all areas of the media, using these commands also requires trust and assurance from the vendor that the commands have been implemented as expected. Shredding—or other physically destructive methods that cut the drive into small pieces—is becoming increasingly challenging.
While this can still be a fully acceptable method if the shred size is small enough, increasingly dense chips are actually damaging conventional shredders see page 7 of the Guidelines.
And, of course, any physical destruction method also means that the device being destroyed is completely unusable, resulting in both environmental and cost impacts. Clear applies logical techniques to sanitize data in all user-addressable storage locations. This protects against simple, non-invasive data recovery techniques and provides a moderate level of data protection.
This can include rewriting with a new value or using a menu option to reset the device to the factory state when rewriting is not supported.
The data is then overwritten and verified.
Most devices support some level of Clear sanitization. It does not, however, address hidden or unaddressable areas.
Purge applies physical or logical techniques that render target data recovery infeasible using state-of-the-art laboratory techniques.
Purge provides a more thorough level of sanitization than Clear and is used for more confidential data.
A firmware-based command is then triggered, depending on the type of drive. Finally, the last step verifies the write. There are times, though, when Purge cannot be applied to all devices based on the firmware involved.
Destroy renders target data recovery infeasible using state of the art laboratory techniques. It also renders the media incapable of storing data afterward. These can be necessary for drives that are already beyond all possible use or standard overwriting methods because of physical damage. That said, Purge and Clear, where applicable may be more appropriate than Destroy in many cases. Not only does it contribute to environmental waste, it lessens the lifespans of information technology storage devices.
These devices can often be used by other departments within the original organization, or even donated or sold to organizations with less stringent performance needs.
There can also be difficulties in physically destroying some types of media, whether because of the particle size needed to effectively make all data irretrievable, the expense, or other factors. For these reasons, Blancco recommends considering Purge and Clear whenever these options are supported and it makes business sense to do so.
There are also instances, for highly protective data, where Purge and Destroy are used together to provide extra peace of mind against any form of data recovery. The Guidelines offer Clear, Purge and Destroy as valid options for sanitization based on the confidentiality requirements of the data rather than the storage technology on which the data resides.
Encryption[ edit ] When encryption is in place, data erasure acts as a complement to crypto-shredding , or the practice of 'deleting' data by only deleting or overwriting the encryption keys.
Drives with this capability are known as self-encrypting drives SEDs ; they are present on most modern enterprise-level laptops and are increasingly used in the enterprise to protect the data. Theft of an SED results in a physical asset loss, but the stored data is inaccessible without the decryption key that is not stored on a SED, assuming there are no effective attacks against AES or its implementation in the drive hardware.
Importance[ edit ] Information technology assets commonly hold large volumes of confidential data.
Social security numbers , credit card numbers, bank details, medical history and classified information are often stored on computer hard drives or servers.
Data breach[ edit ] Increased storage of sensitive data, combined with rapid technological change and the shorter lifespan of IT assets, has driven the need for permanent data erasure of electronic devices as they are retired or refurbished.
Also, compromised networks and laptop theft and loss, as well as that of other portable media, are increasingly common sources of data breaches.
Data Sanitization Guidelines
If data erasure does not occur when a disk is retired or lost, an organization or user faces a possibility that the data will be stolen and compromised, leading to identity theft, loss of corporate reputation, threats to regulatory compliance and financial impacts.
Companies spend large amounts of money to make sure their data is erased when they discard disks.
Failure to comply can result in fines and damage to company reputation, as well as civil and criminal liability.Java has a SHA-3 implementation since version 9. Related Posts:.
This information is located not only on the intended storage media but also on devices used to create, process, or transmit this information. In such cases, it is assumed that the MAC algorithm will satisfy the following property for each of its supported security strengths : Given knowledge of the key k, and perhaps partial knowledge of a message x that includes an unknown substring z, it must be computationally infeasible to predict the as-yet-unseen value of MAC k, x, … with a probability of success that is a significant improvement over simply guessing either the MAC value or the value of z, even if one has already seen the values of MAC kj, xj, … for a feasible number of other kj, xj pairs, where each key kj is known and each partially known message xj includes the same unknown substring z, provided that none of the kj, xj pairs is identical to k, x.
Private businesses and organizations within the U. What is Media Sanitization?
Physical destruction and degaussing destroy the digital media, requiring disposal and contributing to electronic waste while negatively impacting the carbon footprint of individuals and companies.
Dedicated sanitization methods may make up the difference, but confirmation can depend on vendor statements. Finally, the last step verifies the write. Shredded or otherwise rendered unusable?