PL/SQL Tutorial in PDF - Learn PL/SQL programming in simple and easy steps starting with PL/SQL syntax, Environment Setup, Operators, Transactions, Date. PL/SQL is one of three key programming languages embedded in the Oracle This tutorial will give you great understanding on PL/SQL to proceed with Oracle . Oracle Database PL/SQL User's Guide and Reference 10g Release 2 (). B Copyright © , , Oracle. .. Processing Queries with PL/SQL .

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The executable portion of a PL/SQL code block starts with the keyword Begin occur during the execution of the statements and commands in the executable. Oracle PL/SQL by example / Benjamin Rosenzweig, Elena Silvestrova Rakhimov . p. cm. .. in PL/SQL only through queries. Starting with Oracle 11g, these. This section will provide a basic understanding of PL/SQL. PL/SQL is Oracle's procedural language extension to SQL, the relational database language.

And certainly shorter than my books.

PL/SQL Tutorial in PDF

This feature not only leads to a reduction in lines of code but also allows you to write more intuitive code. Check out my LiveSQL script for lots of examples and also my blog post on this topic.


Normalization of code is just as important as normalization of data. Don't repeat your data, and don't repeat your code a.

AS_PDF, generating a PDF-document with some plsql

A great example of how important this can be is with overloading. Overloading, also known as static polymorphism sorry, just couldn't help throwing that in , means you have two or more subprograms with the same name, but different parameter lists or program type procedure vs function.

It's a very nice feature when it comes to reducing the number of moving parts in your API package specification , and making it easier for developers to use your code.

Usually, those multiple subprograms with the same name are doing almost the same thing, which means most of their implementation will be the same, which means Here's an example from the thread discussion manager package of the Oracle Dev Gym backend.

The easiest thing to do is cut and paste.

It is a programming language which is used to define our own logics.

Why not copy-paste it? I get that, but here's the thing to keep in mind always with code: It's only going to get more complicated over time. That one statement will grow to three statements, then to 25 statements.

And each time, along the way, you must remember to keep the two procedures in synch. And what if there are five of them? These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part.

The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Blocks can be nested — i. The interactive tool or program runs the block once.

The block is not stored in the database, and for that reason, it is called an anonymous block even if it has a label. This returned value may be a single scalar value such as a number, date or character string or a single collection such as a nested table or varray.

User-defined functions supplement the built-in functions provided by Oracle Corporation. The only out value from the function should be the value it returns. Procedure[ edit ] Procedures resemble functions in that they are named program units that can be invoked repeatedly.

SQL Exercises

The primary difference is that functions can be used in a SQL statement whereas procedures cannot. Another difference is that the procedure can return multiple values whereas a function should only return a single value. The procedure begins with a mandatory heading part to hold the procedure name and optionally the procedure parameter list. The standalone or package procedures, stored in the database, are referred to as " stored procedures ".

An IN parameter is used as input only. An IN parameter is passed by reference, though it can be changed by the inactive program.You will also use similar steps on your operating system, does not matter if it is Linux or Solaris. How to create a procedure?

Oracle PL/SQL Tutorial

The Exception Handling or Error section optional. The concepts like cursors , functions and stored procedures can be used in other database systems like Sybase , Microsoft SQL server etc, with some change in SQL syntax.

How to execute a function?

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